Czernowitz – Chernivtsi

the Former Capital of Bukovina

Willi Kosiul
John Losee, Trans. & Ed.

From the Website of Willi Kosiul
Posted with permission of the author’s son, February 5, 2021

Until the First World War ended in 1918, Chernivtsi (Czernowitz or Tschernowitz in German) was the capital of the Austrian duchy of Bukovina and the crown land of the Austrian Monarchy. From the end of 1918 until June, 1940, Czernowitz (known as Cernăuți in Romanian), was the provincial capital of all of Bukovina, which was under Romanian rule.

With the occupation of northern Bukovina in June 1940 by the Soviet army, and the annexation in March 1944, by the then Ukrainian Soviet Republic, Chernivtsi became forever after, the regional Capital of the separated northern part of Bukovina. Since 1991, Chernivtsi has been a regional city in the Ukrainian northern part of Bukovina, and is now its regional Capital.

The city of Chernivtsi is located in the Ukrainian northern part of Bukovina, now called Northern Bukovina, lying on the southwestern bank of the largest river in Bukovina – the Prut. The main highway through Chernivtsi (the former Austrian military road – at that time known as the “Army road”) like the railway, connects the northern and southern parts of Bukovina.

The name Czernowitz comes from a Slavic term. It is derived from “czorne”, in German – “black” and, according to its Slavic origin, meant a black, burned-down and charred housing development. This housing development “czorne” was originally located east of the river on the left bank of the Prut, and was often exposed to many attacks – coming from the east – as well as destruction from fires and major floods. So in the 14th century, the housing development was moved from the east side to the west side of the Prut river, where it was rebuilt in the higher hilly landscape.

As there was no bridge over the large, very wide Prut river at the time, the newly relocated housing development, west of the river, was more safely protected from raid by the hordes and gangs from the east, as well as from floods. And, so it is from this small housing development that was relocated in the 14th century to the south side of the river, in the hilly landscape there, that the city of Czernowitz originated, which was referenced in 1408, in a document of the Moldovan Voivode [Slavic term meaning “Military Leader”] as “Chernivtsi”, a customs post.

The highest elevation in the city of Chernivtsi is the former “Austriaplatz”, at 218 meters above sea level.

The residential area of Chernivtsi has always had an old trade route to the north – to Galicia and Poland, to the east – to Bessarabia, and to the south to the former Moldova, and further on to the Balkans. Therefore, this was always a favorable center point for traffic and trade. Already in the years around 1200, and repeatedly later on, German traders and merchants settled in Chernivtsi, and the surrounding area (as in Suczawa and Sereth). But due to warlike incursions by the Mongols, Tatras, Cossacks, and Ottomans (Turks) in the area, the Germans, due to their religious beliefs and German nationality, were again and again exterminated or driven out.

In 1456, the Moldovan Prince appointed a “Starost” for Chernivtsi (an elder, or “Community leader”) to be the official in charge in Chernivtsi. Just one year later – in 1457 – was named a so-called central place in this area. As a result, Chernivtsi became the administrative center or headquarters for the administration of several small villages in the area, like a small county. It was then that Chernivtsi began to grow in importance, becoming the central point in the area.

In 1510, the Moldovan Prince granted the Chernivtsi Starost (community leader) greater responsibility, and more independence and freedom in decision making with regard to negotiations with the Polish King, for northern Moldova. The housing development, that is, the village of Chernivtsi, was not at this time, geographically in the middle of this little country, then called “Northern Moldova”, and later “Bukovina”, however more so than the former cities of Suczawa and Sereth, both of which lay directly on the eastern border of Bukovina.

In 1514, the Ottomans (Turks) defeated the entire Principality of Moldova, and occupied “Northern Moldova” (including the entire Chernivtsi area), and further north and northeast to the Prut and Dniester rivers, and the Polish and Russian borders. As a result, the Moldovan area of Chernivtsi came under Turkish control in 1514. In the years that followed, the Chernivtsi area was repeatedly the scene of armed conflicts and events. For many years, it was repeatedly a residence and transit area used by various warriors.

In 1709, after being defeated in battle at the Ukrainian city of Poltava, during his flight through these forests, from the Russians, the Swedish King and his army laid siege to the area. Here the Swedes replenished their supplies for themselves and their horses, using the few possessions of the local residents, until they were driven out by the Russians.
So it was, during the war between the Ottomans and Poland (163-1699), during the war between Sweden and Russia (1709-1714), as well as during the war between the Ottomans and Russians (1736-1739), armies of all warring parties (on both sides) ruthlessly besieged, plundered, exploited ,and destroyed.

In 1714, the Ottomans defeated the Moldovans, occupied the entire area, and obtained sovereignty over it for many years.
During the Russian-Ottoman War (1768-1774), the Russians came out of the northeast in 1769, and invaded the Chernivtsi area, and occupied all of Moldova and Walachia southward to the Danube, until the peace treaty in 1774.

In the fall of 1774, after the end of the war, and according to the peace treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Empire, the Russian occupation forces withdrew to the east, from all of Moldova, and also from the Chernivtsi area (all of northern Moldova). On August 31, 1774, even before the Russian occupation troops withdrew from “Northern Moldova”, Austro-Hungarian troops, coming from the north (Galicia), marched into the area and occupied Chernivtsi, in peaceful and friendly agreement with the Russian General there, and in a few days militarily occupied all of “Northern Moldova” forever.

On September 1, 1774, the Austro-Hungarian General Freiherr von Spleny established the Austrian Military Command in the village of Chernivtsi, then built the Austrian Military administration throughout all of “Northern Moldova”. The entire border of this area was occupied and secured by Austrian troops like a base. When, according to the peace treaty, the Ottoman troops wanted to take back their territory (“Northern Moldova”), it was already occupied by Austrian troops.
It was only after long diplomatic negotiations between Austria and the Ottoman Empire, that the Sultan – as the weaker military force – was forced by the Agreement of Constantinople (now Istanbul) in 1775, to leave the area of “Northern Moldova” peacefully and under international law to the Austrian Monarchy forever.

During the Austrian occupation of Bukovina, in 1774 and with the contractual assignment under international law to Austria in 1775, Chernivtsi was just a village community with a customs post for continuous trade between Moldavia, Galicia, and Bessarabia. Chernivtsi was still and unknown market town with about 278 families and 1,390 inhabitants. Along with the surrounding housing developments, it had a total of about 2,000 inhabitants in 1774. At the time, Chernivtsi only had small reed-roofed wooden houses (mostly with only one living room) and only one single boggy street. With the establishment, on September 1, 1774, of the Austrian military command headquarters, and afterward the seat of the Austrian military administration for all of Bukovina in Chernivtsi, the town of Chernivtsi gained in size and political importance. As several Austrian military units were brought to Chernivtsi, and later many of their family members moved in, the number of inhabitants in Chernivtsi increased steadily.

The establishment of Austrian military posts also offered the local population some good jobs and a secure financial income. This also induced many citizens of the local area to move to Chernivtsi, and settle down there. In Chernivtsi, the construction activity on houses, shops and public buildings, as well as the number of inhabitants, increased steadily, and the market town quickly grew into a city.

The municipality of Chernivtsi lay in the northern part of Bukovina, more centrally, and geographically a little more favorable, than the other two cities of Bukovina -Suczawa and Sereth. It was also closer to the Austrian Kingdom of Galicia and its Capital Lemberg. That is why, in 1774/1775, the Austrian monarchy designated Chernivtsi as the “Capital” of Bukovina.

At the time of the Austrian occupation of this area (Bukovina) in 1774, there were no German residents living there. The first Germans in Bukovina were the Austrian soldiers who occupied the land in 1774, and then worked here as occupiers, as well as their family members who followed them to Bukovina from Austria.

In 1776, after two years of Austrian rule, the community of Chernivtsi was raised to the status of a city. The Austrian government made great efforts to rapidly expand Chernivtsi as the state capital, and create all the necessary public facilities there. As a result Chernivtsi very quickly grew into an attractive regional capital, and over time significantly overtook the first, old cities of Bukovina – Suczawa and Sereth. It was Chernivtsi that all essential impulses for the development of the entire country of Bukovina emanated from.

On June 25, 1782, suddenly, and unexpectedly, the first families from southwest Germany – immigrants from the southern Hungarian Banat –on their way to Bukovina, arrived in Chernivtsi, and registered with the Austrian military administration there to settle. Since the promises of their recruitment were not kept, and the conditions of settlement did not suit them, these southwestern German left the Banat and emigrated to Bukovina. Now these Southwest German Swabians had to be temporarily housed, and supplied here in the Rosch housing development near Chernivtsi.

In August 1782, the first large group of southwestern German settlers, with around 50 families, and over 200 people came to settle in Chernivtsi, on their way from Galicia to Bukovina. In October 1782, still more southwestern German immigrants suddenly and unexpectedly arrived in Chernivtsi – from the southern Hungarian Banat – on their migration to Bukovina, and had to be accommodated in and around Chernivtsi.

These first southwestern German immigrants to Bukovina founded the first German housing developments in Rosch and other areas (suburbs of Chernivtsi) in 1782, and as such, also the first Protestant community in Bukovina. On January 1, 1783, the first public post office in Bukovina opened in Chernivtsi. The mail was carried by horsemen.

This created a postal route from Chernivtsi via Suczawa , Transylvania, and Budapest to Vienna and back, as well as one from Chernivtsi to Lemberg and back. Then, for the first time, beginning in 1783, mail delivery in and out of Bukovina, and within Bukovina was possible. Later, official post stations were built along these routes, allowing overnight stays, and horse changes. In 1834, the equestrian traffic along these mail routes was replaced by a carriage mail system.

In 1784 Chernivtsi and its suburbs had around 3,200 inhabitants.

Also in 1784, the first German elementary school in Bukovina was opened in Chernivtsi, as well as another in Suzawa, each with a classroom and a German teacher. Up until that time there were no elementary schools whatsoever in Bukovina.

In 1785, without counting its suburbs or Austrian military population, Chernivtsi had 2,686 inhabitants. Also in 1785, a public pharmacy was opened in Chernivtsi. It was the only public pharmacy in all of Bukovina at that time.

On February 8, 1786, Austrian Emperor Joseph II issued and important Imperial decree for Bukovinans, by which all Bukovinans were released from a sovereign tax obligations for 30 years. It also regulated and curtailed the hierarchy of the large land owners, and announced the immigration of settlers in order to increase the population of Bukovina significantly faster. The immigrant settlers were to be given particularly preferential treatment to encourage them to settle in the three cities – Chernivtsi, Suczawa, and Sereth.

In 1786, an ecclesiastical vice-superior, as well as a field chaplain (pastor in the military service) were installed in Chernivtsi, for the 833 Military and 490 German civilians there. In doing so, Chernivtsi was elevated to a separate parish, and became the seat of the ecclesiastical dean for all of Bukovina. On July 24, 1786, Austrian Emperor Joseph II visited Chernivtsi and Bukovina for the second time, and personally visited his construction works.

After that, the emperor ordered the construction of a massively large Roman Catholic church in Chernivtsi for the Bukovinans, at the expense of the state, and to dissolve the military administration, and join Bukovina, as an independent region within the Austrian Kingdom of Galicia. With that, the military administration of Bukovina in Chernivtsi ended on January 31, 1787.

From February 1, 1787, all of Bukovina was an independent district of Galicia, and was then subordinate to the Polish Gubernium in Lemberg (now Lviv, Ukraine). Chernivtsi became the seat of the new civil district administration, and the city of Chernivtsi received its first town charter. Of course with the annexation of the German and multi-national Bukovina to the Kingdom of Galicia, the Polish government from Lemberg did everything in its power to Polonize Bukovina, and to use it for their own interests.

As a result, the Austrian Emperor Joseph II’s decision to join Bukovina to Galicia was not as advantageous as it was intended to be, instead it turned out to be a disadvantage for all of Bukovina. Therefore, all the inhabitants of Bukovina were against their Polonization, and the annexation of Bukovina to Galicia. Nevertheless, everything remained the same. In 1778, the housing developments and villages around Chernivtsi were incorporated into Chernivtsi, and later their suburbs were also added. As a result of this incorporation and further immigration, Chernivtsi grew very quickly and in 1880, already had 45,000 inhabitants.

At that time, different ethnic groups and nationalities lived in Chernivtsi, such as: Ruthenians, Romanians, Germans, Poles, Jews, Greeks, Armenians, Lippowans, and also Gypsies. As a result, Chernivtsi was, and forever remained, as did later, all of Bukovina – a multinational community of people, with many different religions.

In 1795, the largest Protestant parish in Bukovina was founded in Chernivtsi, with about 400 Protestants. In 1799, the first German printing shop was established. Until then, there were no printing shops anywhere in Bukovina. On December 16, 1808, at the direction of Austrian

In 1817, Austrian Emperor Franz I visited Chernivtsi, to personally inspect the development of Bukovina. In 1819-1820, the plague raged in Chernivtsi and the surrounding area, and claimed many lives.

In 1823, the so-called “Prince Congress” between Austrian Emperor Franz I and Russian Tsar Alexander, to establish the Austrian-Russian border, etc., took place in Chernivtsi, but it was not successfully completed, as it had to be terminated prematurely due to the sudden illness of Austrian Minister Metternich in Galicia, while on his way to Bukovina.

In 1829, the plague broke out again in Chernivtsi and the surrounding area, killing a great many people. In 1831 – only 2 years later – cholera broke out in Chernivtsi and the surrounding area, and brought about 3,000 deaths in the city of Chernivtsi alone. After that, in 1832, Chernivtsi had only about 10,000 inhabitants, which grew to 15,016 by the year 1846. The revolution of 1848 affected only a few students in Chernivtsi, and Bukovina just slightly. In 1848, Cholera broke out again in Chernivtsi and the surrounding area, which had a population of 20,000. About 4,000 became ill, with about 600 deaths.

On March 4, 1849, the new Austrian Emperor, Franz Joseph I, separated Bukovina from the Polish kingdom of Galicia, and elevated Bukovina to an autonomous, independent crown land of the Austrian monarchy, with the title of “Duchy”. Chernivtsi, which at the time was a County Seat, became the capital of the Austrian duchy. In reality however, Bukovina was not removed from the administration of the Kingdom of Galicia in Lemberg, until 1854, due to deliberate delaying tactics by the Polish government of Galicia. In 1851, and again in 1855, Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph I (reigned 1848-1916) visited Chernivtsi and Bukovina.

In 1855. The first telegraph office in Bukovina opened in Chernivtsi. In 1857, Chernivtsi had a total of 21,588 inhabitants, of which 12,290 were German-speaking residents (including 4,678 Jews), 4,800 Romanians, 3,500 Ruthenians (later called Ukrainians), 810 Poles, and 188 other minorities.

In 1860, the first savings bank in Bukovina was opened in Chernivtsi. In 1864, a beautiful residence was built in Chernivtsi for the Greek Orthodox Metropolitan (Bishop) of the Orthodox diocese of Bukovina, according to construction plans of a Bohemian architect from Prague. The entire building complex was built at the direction of the Austrian Emperor, using funds from the Greek Orthodox Religious Fund. The newly founded German University of Chernivtsi was also housed in this building complex in 1875.

In 1865 horse-drawn carriage traffic (formerly Fiacre [horse-drawn four-wheeled carriages for hire. In Vienna they are Called Fiaker]) was introduced in Chernivtsi. In 1865-1866 a train station was built in Chernivtsi, and on September 1, 1866, the first railway in Bukovina, running from Chernivtsi to Lemberg was opened, and so Chernivtsi and Bukovina were connected to the Austrian Imperial Railway network. This created a railway connection from Chernivtsi, via Lemberg, to Krakow and Central Europe. Three years later, in 1869, a railway line between Chernivtsi and Suczawa was built, expanding the network to the south.

In 1866, there was another epidemic in Chernivtsi and the surrounding area – typhus and cholera. Of the around 34,000 inhabitants in Chernivtsi at that time, 1,182 people – 3.5% of the city’s population died from the epidemic.

In 1870, and afterward, was a very active construction period in Chernivtsi on many large public buildings, shops, and houses. After that various State schools, and institutions of higher learning, as well as churches of different faiths were established.

On October 4, 1875, the brand new German “Francisko-Josephina” (“Franz Joseph”) University, which had been built in the Greek-Orthodox Episcopal residential palace in Chernivtsi, and had three faculties, opened. This was a special social highlight in Bukovina, which was celebrated on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of Bukovina belonging to the Austrian monarchy. This Austrian university in the far east of the Austrian monarchy was already of special importance, not only for Bukovina, but also for the monarchy.

This first German university in the east, in Chernivtsi, had the following faculties:
– A Greek-Oriental theological faculty with initially seven professors.
– A law school and political science faculty with seven professors and two doctorates.
– A philosophy faculty with ten professors and two doctorates.
The two secular faculties (law and philosophy) spoke German, with facilities for Romanian and Ruthenian language and literature.

This new University of Chernivtsi was, along with the universities in Vienna, Prague, Granz, and Innsbruck, the fifth German-speaking university in the entire Austrian Monarchy. In 1875, Chernivtsi had a total of about 30,000 inhabitants. On September 15, 1880, Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph I visited Chernivtsi and Bukovina again, to see the reconstruction work for himself.

In 1895, the provincial capital of Chernivtsi received its first water pipeline, and thereby relieved the water supply through wells, especially in the center of the city. On February 5, 1896, the first public street lighting was introduced in Chernivtsi, and the city sewer system was built.

On July 18, 1897, electric street cars {trams] were introduced in the provincial capital of Chernivtsi, thereby relieving the horse traffic (the Fiakers). In 1900, the city center of Chernivtsi alone (without its five suburbs) had 47,575 inhabitants. Of these, 42% were Jews, 39% Catholics, 16% Orthodox, and others. The colloquial language of these residents was 58% German, 20% Ruthenian, and others. In 1900, the entire state capital of Chernivtsi with its five suburbs had a total of 67,622 inhabitants. Of these 40% were Catholics, 32% Israelites, 23% Orthodox, and others. Around 1900, Chernivtsi – as a Garrison town – also had 2,765 member of the military stationed there.

In 1905, the city theater, which is still in operation today, was built in Chernivtsi, according to plans by Viennese architects. From 1906 to 1910, the “German House”, a meeting place for Germans (the building still exists today), was built in Chernivtsi. The multinational capital of Chernivtsi had thus a total of 5 national houses, one each for the Germans, Jews, Romanians, Ukrainians, and Poles. In 1914, Chernivtsi, with its five suburbs, had 120,000 inhabitants, and 10,000 military personnel.

On August 1, 1914, the First World War began, and since Chernivtsi was only 45 km from the Russian border, it was immediately a target of the Russians. Since all Austrian military units had been transferred from Chernivtsi to the Galician/Russian front in the early days, Chernivtsi was militarily stripped bare, and only had barracked police units available for defense.

Chernivtsi was occupied repeatedly, three times, by Russian troops. The third occupation lasted 13 months, and only in March 1917 (after the Russian February Revolution), did the Russian troops withdraw from Chernivtsi. During the First World War, Chernivtsi was exposed to several acts of war, and periods of occupation, which caused great damage to the city and its inhabitants. During this time, the entire Austrian administration and also the school system were closed.

After the First World War ended on November 11, 1918, Romanian troops occupied Chernivtsi and Bukovina from then on. After that, from 1918 to 1940, Chernivtsi, like the rest of Bukovina, belonged to the Kingdom of Greater Romania. During this time, the Romanian government in Bucharest, in Chernivtsi, and all of Bukovina, pursued a policy of suppression of all other nationalities, as well as a targeted policy of Romanizing the non-Romanian ethnic groups.

Naturally, this Romanian oppression and Romanization policy was rejected by all ethnic groups, and promoted or strengthened their national awareness even more. These oppressed national groups came together, even closer, and so nationalism developed and shaped itself more and more. In 1930, Chernivtsi, with its five suburbs, had a total of around 150,000 inhabitants.

At the beginning of 1940, the center of Chernivtsi (excluding its five suburbs) had about 130,000 inhabitants, including 20,000 Germans and 10,000 Jews. In total, with the five suburbs, Chernivtsi had in 1940, 180,000 inhabitants. The majority of the residents of Chernivtsi were Romanians, and the second largest ethnic group at that time were Ukrainians.
On June 26, 1940, the Soviet Union issued an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Romania, to evacuate northern Bukovina and Bessarabia within three days, and to leave them to the Soviet Union forever. The Romanian kingdom was forced to agree to this ultimatum (in order to prevent a military defeat by the Soviet Union), withdrew – according to Soviet demands – from these areas. On June 28, 1940, the Soviet Army marched into Chernivtsi and northern Bukovina, without any fighting, and occupied it forever. This Soviet occupation of Chernivtsi and all of northern Bukovina and Bessarabia triggered the resettlement of the Germans from that area, to the German Empire.

According to a diplomatic agreement between the German Empire and the Soviet Union on September 5, 1940, a German resettlement commission from the Empire then organized the resettlement of the Germans, from Chernivtsi and the entire Soviet-occupied northern Bukovina in October and November 1940 to the German Empire. The entire city of Chernivtsi (with its five suburbs) was divided into five resettlement areas – in order to record the Germans willing to resettle, and to carry out the resettlement. In the period from September 26, 1940 to November 13, 1940, a total of 30 special trains, and one medical train (for the sick and infirm) with a total of 31,763 people left Chernivtsi for the German Empire. On November 9, 1940, the last rail transport with re-settlers from the German Beech Country of Chernivtsi left the city for what was then the German Empire. As a result, the German ethnic group ceased to exist in the city of Chernivtsi.

After the beginning of the war between the German Empire and the Soviet Union (on June 22, 1941), the Soviet troops from northern Bukovina fled east, back to the Soviet Union.

Afterward, on July 5, 1941, Romanian troops entered Chernivtsi, and occupied it. After this reoccupation of northern Bukovina at the beginning of July 1941, around 50,000 Jews from Chernivtsi, and other places in northern Bukovina, were immediately murdered, some in the individual towns and cities, and others were deported to camps. About 16,000 Jews were “lucky” and were initially allowed to stay in a ghetto in Chernivtsi (a closed part of town or residential area for Jews) with a curfew. Two days later, on July 7, 1941, the Jewish temple in Chernivtsi – the most magnificent temple in Eastern Europe – was burned down and completely destroyed.

On March 22, 1944, the Soviet Army took the city of Chernivtsi again, without a fight. The German and Romanian troops withdrew from the area to the southwest, without a fight. Taking advantage of the darkness, and the Carpathian forests, the German and Romanian troops withdrew from here in order to avoid the danger of being surrounded by Soviet troops. Only in the high mountains near Vatra Dorna, in the very south-west of South Bukovina, did the German troops take up fighting positions, where they defended themselves until September 1944 – with high losses – and then withdrew to Hungary.
Romania had already changed fronts on August 23, 1944, and then fought with the Soviet Union against the Germans. At the end of the war, in 1945, Chernivtsi (in Russian, and in Ukrainian called Czerniwzi) became the regional capital of all of Soviet North Bukovina, and as an “oblast”, belonged to the Soviet Republic of Ukraine, today part of the Republic of Ukraine.

In 1946, an administrative reform was carried out there, whereby all districts were dissolved, and the entire area of Northern Bukovina was placed under the administration of Chernivtsi. Several villages and communities around Chernivtsi were incorporated into the regional capital, thereby enlarging the city of Chernivtsi. In 1970, the population of Chernivtsi, with all its suburbs and the newly incorporated suburbs, such as Sadagora, and others, totaled 186,000 inhabitants. After that, housing construction began to increase in large portions of Chernivtsi. As a result of this acceleration in housing construction, the number of people moving to Chernivtsi, and thus the number of inhabitants in the city of Chernivtsi, increased rapidly.

In 1985/1986, the large “Tscheremosch” hotel was built in Chernivtsi – named after the “Tscheremosch” river in the west of the country, on the border with Slovakia. It is a 3 star hotel with 13 floors, and 612 beds, with one and two bed rooms, as well as many dining facilities. It is the largest and best hotel in the city of Chernivtsi, as well as one of the best hotels in all of Ukraine, and is preferred by international tourist groups.

On July 16, 1990, Ukraine, after being separated from the USSR, declared itself a free, independent state, and then on August 24, 1991, a sovereign state. In 1996, the city of Chernivtsi, with its five suburbs, had about 270,000 inhabitants, and was located on a land area of 200 square kilometers. In 2002, Chernivtsi had a total of about 340,000 inhabitants. All important, old, historical buildings and objects in Chernivtsi were erected by Austrian and Bohemian architects during the Austrian rule. That is why a lot of things that were built in Chernivtsi according to the old Viennese architectural style, are still clearly recognizable yet today.

The Roman Catholic Church in Chernivtsi is fully operational. It is run by Polish pastors. It is visited by the Polish, Slovak, and the few German Catholics living there. In 2002, I personally visited and toured the Church, and had a friendly conversation with the Polish Pastor (who was a doctor, around 40 years of age, who also spoke some German.)

The distance from Chernivtsi to my former county seat of Storozynetz is 22 km, to my place of birth – Czudyn is 38 km, to Krasna is 48 km, and to Althuette is 52 km.

Further, more extensive information can be found in three books I have already mentioned about Bukovina.